American Journal of Kidney Diseases, Vol 56, No 1 (July), 2010: pp 122-131The incidence rate of acute kidney injury (AKI) is highest in elderly patients, who make up an ever-growing segment of the population at large. AKI in these patients is associated with an increased risk of short- and long-term death and chronic kidney disease, including end-stage renal disease. Whether AKI in older individuals carries a larger relative risk for these outcomes compared with younger individuals is unclear at this time. Other domains, such as health-related quality of life, may be mildly impacted on after an episode of AKI. No effective therapies for AKI currently are available for widespread use. However, because the incidence of AKI is highest in the elderly and the phenotype is not discernibly different from AKI in all populations, future randomized controlled trials of interventions for AKI should be performed in the elderly population.